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The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart

The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart

Source : Internet Archive

The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart

The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart

Source : Internet Archive

Results : FAIRBAIRN


Page 18

Employment-Work at Newcastle-David Hogg-The future Mrs. Fairbairn- Discussion Society - The Theatre-The Poet of Plessy-Castles in the Air-Embarks for London-Perils


Page 19

Catrine Bank, for New Waterwheels- Mr. Fairbairn visits the Site-Nature of the old Machinery-Improvements proposed-Completion and Success of the New


Page 20

Sultan to England-Their Report-Application to Mr. Fairbairn-He visits Constantinople-Death of the Sultan-Ohanes Dadian-Exploration of the Country-Animated Boulder Stones-Survey of the


Page 21

Matters-Pupils-Dr. Birkbeck-Miss Fairbairn's Marriage-Death of Mr. Fairbairn's Father-J-Haydon, the Artist-Proposed Wrestling Match with George Stephenson.........


Page 21

England-Complete Design sent in by Mr. Fairbairn-Adoption of the general Principle-Rejection of the Tubular Form of Girder and Preference for


Page 22

Culminating Point in Mr. Fairbairn's Life-Effect of Controversies- The Royal Society of London-Mr. George Ronnie-Certificate- Election as F.R.S.-The


Page 23

Tank Engine-Work for Constantinople-Entrance of Mr. Fairbairn's Son into the Business-Liverpool Landing Stage-The Tubular Bridge Patent-Improvements in the Steam-Engine-Caisson for


Page 23

of the Manchester Business-Retirement of Mr. Fairbairn-Flour-Mill and Bakery for the Crimean War-Rebuilding of Viaducts on the Manchester and Sheffield


Page 24

Mr. Fairbairn a voluminous Writer-Tubular Girder Bridges-Paper for the Royal Society-Effect of repeated Meltings on


Page 25

at the Polygon, Society there- Mr. Fairbairn's Character-Business Integrity-Domestic Letters - New Stock and Barrel-Two Moons-Opinions on worthless Schemes-Religious Feelings,


Page 25

List of Sir William Fairbairn's published Works and Papers . . 475


Page 28

to the Life of Sir William Fairbairn, to give some account generally of the profession to which he belonged.


Page 29

4 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. r.


Page 31

6 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. t.


Page 33

8 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, l


Page 35

10 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, l


Page 37

12 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. i.


Page 39

14 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, l


Page 43

18 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. i.


Page 49

LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN.


Page 51

Mr. Fairbairn, who was educated strictly as a millwright, and was never ashamed of calling


Page 51

26 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. if.


Page 53

28 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. u.


Page 55

30 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. u.


Page 57

was ultimately left to starve. Mr. Fairbairn, as we shall see in a future chapter, took up warmly the cause


Page 57

32 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 59

34 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 61

It has, in fact (as Mr. Fairbairn has remarked), effected an entire revolution in the iron industry of Great Britain.


Page 61

36 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ii.


Page 62

given, partly taken from Sir William Fairbairn's book:


Page 63

38 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 65

40 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ii.


Page 67

42 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ii.


Page 69

44 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. u.


Page 71

46 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN.


Page 73

as will be seen hereafter, Mr. Fairbairn took an active and important part. The Menai Bridge is 1,511 feet long,


Page 74

the profession of which Sir William Fairbairn was one of the most distinguished members.


Page 75

50 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. otap. ir.


Page 78

His father, Andrew Fairbairn, was descended, on the male side, from a humble but respectable class of


Page 78

William Fairbairn was born in the town of Kelso, in Koxburghshire, on February 19, 1789.


Page 79

54 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. m.


Page 81

5G LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, in.


Page 83

himself and his brother, Mr. Peter Fairbairn, for many years a resident in that country and secretary to Lord Seaforth,


Page 83

58 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. in.


Page 85

GO LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. hi.


Page 87

62 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. cjiap. m.


Page 88

Andrew Fairbairn remained only two years in his steward's place.


Page 89

64 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. hi.


Page 91

66 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. in.


Page 94

not last long , for Andrew Fairbairn was a man of energy and strong will, and having now a growing


Page 95

70 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. i V.


Page 96

Mr. Fairbairn continues :


Page 99

74 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. rv.


Page 101

7G LIFE OF SHt WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. iv.


Page 103

78 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. jv.


Page 105

Mr. Fairbairn, in after life, often alluded with pride and satisfaction to his early intimacy


Page 111

86 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. v.


Page 113

88 UFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. v.


Page 115

90 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. v.


Page 117

942 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. v.


Page 119

94 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. cnvr. v.


Page 122

Mr. Fairbairn continues:


Page 125

100 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. vt.


Page 127

102 LIFE OF SHt WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. yi.


Page 129

to be at hand during Mrs. Fairbairn's


Page 129

101 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. yt.


Page 130

was one which nearly deprived Mrs. Fairbairn of life, and after remaining in the most critical state for ten or


Page 136

Mr. Fairbairn now describes his successful start in business as a manufacturing engineer:


Page 137

112 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chat. vjt.


Page 139

114 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. vir.


Page 147

122 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. vm.


Page 151

126 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. yiii.


Page 153

128 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. vm.


Page 155

In 1830 Mr. Fairbairn formally enrolled himself among his professional brethren by joining the Institution of Civil


Page 155

130 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. thi.


Page 159

134 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ix.


Page 160

branches of the sea. By William Fairbairn, Engineer. London, Longmans and Co., 1831.


Page 160

Dr. Henry, who, writing to Mr. Fairbairn shortly after the publication of the book, says:


Page 161

Company to order Mr. Fairbairn to construct a light passage boat, worked by steam-power, to ply between Glasgow


Page 161

136 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ix.


Page 162

was 7 tons 16 cwt. Mr. Fairbairn says of this boat:


Page 163

138 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. rx.


Page 165

Mr. Fairbairn then describes how he tested the boat's compass, with the aid of a


Page 165

140 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ix.


Page 167

142 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 168

At a later period of Mr. Fairbairn's life he was asked by the eminent French savant, the Baron Charles Dupin,


Page 169

144 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ix.


Page 171

Hitherto the business in which Mr. Fairbairn was engaged had been entirely prosperous and pleasant, but about this time some


Page 171

146 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. a.


Page 172

Mr. Fairbairn writes:


Page 173

This change of circumstances, throwing Mr. Fairbairn entirely on his own resources, was a serious one, and cost him much


Page 173

148 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. ix.


Page 174

opposition to the old establishment. Mr. Fairbairn, however, stood up manfully, and the more his difficulties increased the greater was


Page 178

When Mr. Fairbairn entered on the sole charge of his business he appears to have turned


Page 179

154 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. x.


Page 181

156 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. x.


Page 182

Although Mr. Fairbairn's chief practice lay in the mechanical branch of the profession, he did not


Page 183

Mr. Fairbairn undertook the commission, associating with him in the work a young engineer, Mr.


Page 183

158 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. x.


Page 184

proposed, and signed jointly by Mr. Fairbairn and Mr. Bateman.


Page 185

of Mr. Eaton Hodgkinson and Mr. Fairbairn. Mr. Hodgkinson had previously been engaged in making experiments at Mr. Fairbairn's works,


Page 185

160 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. x.


Page 186

two former of these, and Mr. Fairbairn the third, and each experimenter reported to the Association separately on


Page 186

the United Kingdom.* By Mr. William Fairbairn.


Page 187

162 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. x.


Page 187

for that year, vol. vi. Mr. Fairbairn's report is entitled:


Page 188

About this time Mr. Fairbairn introduced an invention which has been of the greatest utility in engineering manufacture-namely,


Page 189

164 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN.


Page 189

Mr. Fairbairn continues his account:


Page 193

168 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xi.


Page 195

170 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xi.


Page 197

was in frequent communication with Mr. Fairbairn on the subject of the Turkish works : and Mr. Fairbairn seems to


Page 197

172 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xi.


Page 198

and other Haematite Ores.' By William Fairbairn, Mem. Inst. C.E.


Page 198

Mr. Fairbairn gave some further account of his Turkish work at a meeting of the


Page 199

resorted to for construction, and Mr. Fairbairn had already sent over an iron house for a corn mill, fifty feet


Page 199

174 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 200

Please to remember me to Mrs. Fairbairn, and tell her that I hope I shall see her in perfect good


Page 201

176 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xi.


Page 204

shape, than about 1840, when Mr. Fairbairn had completed his -fiftieth year. Some notes remain, referring to matters of a


Page 205

In 1840 Mr. Fairbairn was consulted regarding the best means to be adopted for draining the lake


Page 205

180 UFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xu.


Page 206

The following letter from Mr. Fairbairn's fellow-worker in these important iron experiments will be interesting as showing the zealous


Page 207

In 1841 Mr. Fairbairn was applied to, at the suggestion of the government, to give advice as


Page 207

182 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xh.


Page 208

1842 and the following year Mr. Fairbairn undertook some elaborate investigations on a subject that had often excited the attention


Page 209

In the same year (1844) Mr. Fairbairn was called on, in the course of his professional business, to investigate a


Page 209

184 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. CHAr. xn.


Page 210

contractors of Liverpool, applied to Mr. Fairbairn to visit that town, and make a report on the matter, as they


Page 211

A few months later Mr. Fairbairn's attention was again directed to the construction of large buildings by a dreadful


Page 211

186 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xii.


Page 212

In 1847 Mr. Fairbairn was applied to by the authorities of the city of Basle to design


Page 213

examined many witnesses, among whom Mr. Fairbairn, from his large practice in ironwork, was one of the most prominent. He


Page 215

190 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xn.


Page 216

In September 1841 Mr. Fairbairn's daughter Anne was married to his young friend Mr. J. F. Bateman, an


Page 216

highest terms of yourself and Mrs. Fairbairn, and the rest of the family. I had formed, I confess, great expectations


Page 217

be of considerable service to Mr. Fairbairn. Indeed for many years there was scarcely any engineering scheme or scientific investigation


Page 217

192 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xn.


Page 218

My dear Mr. Fairbairn,-You once gave me hopes of an ier.


Page 218

I hope you and Mrs. Fairbairn and boys and all are well.


Page 219

The pride Mr. Fairbairn took in his long friendship with George Stephenson has already been noticed. The


Page 219

let me wish you and Mrs. Fairbairn many returns of the season.


Page 219

194 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xn.


Page 222

of construction ultimately Ewlopted.' By William Fairbairn, C.E., Memb. Inst. Civil Engineers, Vice-President of the Literary and Philosophical Society, Manchester,


Page 222

comprised in the previous chapter Mr. Fairbairn was engaged, for four years, on a work of such importance and novelty


Page 223

193 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chlap. xi:t.


Page 225

200 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiii.


Page 225

Mr. Fairbairn continues his narrative :


Page 226

Towards the end of August Mr. Fairbairn considered that the experiments had assumed a shape which seemed to require the


Page 226

Mr. Fairbairn remarks on this:


Page 227

tried on October 14, and Mr. Fairbairn, writing the next day to Mr. Stephenson, says:


Page 227

202 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xin.


Page 228

extracts will serve to illustrate Mr. Fairbairn's position in the matter. Mr. Stephenson says :


Page 229

You will observe in Mr. Fairbairn's remarks that he contemplates the feasibility of stripping the tube entirely of all


Page 229

204 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiii.


Page 230

In April Mr. Fairbairn communicated to Mr. Stephenson an account of further experiments, which had enabled a


Page 230

form and the cellular top. Mr. Fairbairn expressed great confidence as to the ultimate success of the undertaking and the


Page 231

Mr. Fairbairn's duties now became more onerous. It was no longer the making and testing


Page 232

About this time we find Mr. Fairbairn considering and proposing plans for the erection and fixing of the bridges, and


Page 233

posed that Mr. Fairbairn's firm should take an important share in the manufacture. Mr. Stephenson, writing to


Page 234

Mr. Fairbairn answered, June 9 :


Page 235

January, and on February 2 Mr. Fairbairn wrote to the effect that the anticipations derived from the experiments on the


Page 235

210 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xm.


Page 236

also actively interested themselves in Mr. Fairbairn's work on these bridges, among whom may be mentioned Sir David Brewster, Mr.


Page 236

answer to an invitation from Mr. Fairbairn:


Page 237

During the course of Mr. Fairbairn's experiments it seems to have occurred to him that the principle which was


Page 237

With kindest regards to Mrs. Fairbairn, in which Mrs. Nasmyth desires to unite,


Page 238

Mr. Fairbairn states in regard to this patent:


Page 242

bridges, and arising out of Mr. Fairbairn's connection with them, was another design of a similar character which, though it


Page 243

and entered into communication with Mr. Fairbairn, and the following letter was written soon afterwards:


Page 243

218 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 244

proposal was agreed to, and Mr. Fairbairn left for Berlin towards the end of October. He had been given letters


Page 245

220 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 246

Chevalier Bunsen the day after Mr. Fairbairn's reception by the King:


Page 247

222 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 248

of your company in Manchester. Mrs. Fairbairn and my son George have been with me first to Cologne and Coblentz,


Page 250

their proceedings, so fur as Mr. Fairbairn was concerned, are related in the following letter which he wrote to Baron


Page 250

BUNSEN. William Fairbairn. T2sq.f Manchester.


Page 251

226 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 253

which the meeting gave to Mrs. Fairbairn, Mr. Horner, and my son: they collectively and individually unite in kind enquiries,


Page 253

about a month later, between Mr. Fairbairn and General (afterwards Sir Edward) Sabine, President of the Eoyal Society , but


Page 254

March 20, 1850. My dear Mr. Fairbairn,-Allow me to introduce to you by these lines M. Kreuter, Engineer to H.M.


Page 255

contained in a letter from Mr. Fairbairn to Mrs. Edgeworth (a relation of Maria Edgeworth), whose acquaintance he had made


Page 255

230 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 256

and in somewhat strong terms, Mr. Fairbairn's remonstrance against the proposed measure. The Baron's answer was as follows, and it


Page 257

232 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 258

Mon respectueux hommage k Madame Fairbairn, votre digne Spouse.


Page 259

This measure emboldened Mr. Fairbairn to persevere in his project, and he accordingly proceeded to prepare his plans


Page 259

234 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 260

on the plan patented by Mr. Fairbairn, providing between them for railway and carriage roads, and having external footpaths on


Page 261

Mr. Fairbairn, being informed of this, wrote to Humboldt, on August 23, 1852, a letter


Page 261

236 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xiv.


Page 262

to have been made to Mr. Fairbairn, but the plans, according to the new conditions, were elaborated by two Prussian


Page 266

The publication of Mr. Fairbairn's work on the great bridges formed a culminating point in his life ,


Page 267

The council ineluded Mr. Fairbairn's name in the selected list of candidates, and he was ejected into the


Page 267

242 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xv.


Page 268

Within a year after Mr. Fairbairn's election into the Eoyal Society another honour was paid him, which was still


Page 269

244 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xv.


Page 271

of Sir Mark Isambard Brunei. Mr. Fairbairn had previously made the acquaintance of some influential members of the Institute, among


Page 271

246 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chai. xv.


Page 272

of three members to investigate Mr. Fairbairn's claims, and, the result of this being satisfactory, an official letter was addressed


Page 273

Corresponding members could be entertained. Mr. Fairbairn, however, continued to receive strong expressions of support from his distinguished friends, as


Page 275

250 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xt.


Page 276

majorite absolue des suffrages a Mr. Fairbairn a Manchester.


Page 277

252 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. CHAr. xv.


Page 279

In December, 1852, Mr. Fairbairn's name was entered in the candidates' book, being proposed by Mr. George Rennie,


Page 279

254 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xv.


Page 282

A subject that much interested Mr. Fairbairn during the best part of his life, and one on which he did


Page 283

Mr. Fairbairn's improvement consisted in using two internal fire-tubes, of smaller size, instead of one


Page 283

258 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvt.


Page 285

in the construction of boilers, Mr. Fairbairn had his attention called to them in another way, as it had been


Page 285

260 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvi.


Page 286

Mr. Fairbairn, from his great experience and high reputation, was much in request on these


Page 287

262 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvi.


Page 288

at Hull, in September 1853, Mr. Fairbairn communicated a paper, entitled ' Experimental Researches to determine the


Page 289

failure of the boiler, and Mr. Fairbairn instituted a series of experiments for the purpose of settling the question. They


Page 289

264 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvi.


Page 291

Mr. Fairbairn replied, and promptly gave attention to the matter. His first step was to


Page 291

266 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvr.


Page 292

being usually signed either by William Fairbairn or Joseph Whitworth, or both.


Page 292

deal of property was destroyed), Mr. Fairbairn


Page 293

April 1858, he retired, and Mr. Fairbairn was elected in his place, a position which he held till his death.


Page 293

268 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvt.


Page 294

foundation of the Boiler Association, Mr. Fairbairn determined to follow out one of the ideas which had been present to


Page 295

former was first undertaken, and Mr. Fairbairn availed himself of the assistance of a practical mathematician, Mr. Thomas Tate (who


Page 295

270 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xti.


Page 296

It was always Mr. Fairbairn's principle to give, if he could, a practical value to his enquiries, and


Page 297

the most meritorious works of Mr. Fairbairn's scientific and professional career, and deserves more credit than it has generally received.


Page 297

272 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xn.


Page 298

Expansion of Superheated Steam, by William Fairbairn, Esq., F.R.S., and Thomas Tate, Esq.' This paper was considered of such importance


Page 299

assisted by Mr. Unwin, and Mr. Fairbairn testified to the great precision and care with which the experiments were conducted.


Page 299

274 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvt.


Page 300

Some years before Mr. Fairbairn's death the question was much agitated whether it would be advisable to introduce


Page 301

276 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xti.


Page 302

William Fairbairn.


Page 303

278 LIFE OF STR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvt.


Page 305

280 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvt.


Page 308

Sir William Fairbairn, Bart.


Page 308

Sir William Fairbairn, Bart.


Page 311

284 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvi.


Page 314

Mr. Fairbairn was engaged for some years on an experimental investigation of great scientific interest,


Page 315

288 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvti.


Page 316

of any ordinary laboratory arrangements. Mr. Fairbairn was known to Mr. Hopkins, not only as a practical engineer, but as


Page 317

To this Mr. Fairbairn replied :


Page 318

of some of the difficulties Mr. Fairbairn had subsequently to overcome.


Page 319

might be extended further, recommending Mr. Fairbairn to consult with Mr. Joule on the subject generally.


Page 319

292 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xyii.


Page 320

On June 26 Mr. Fairbairn wrote from London:


Page 321

out, and on November 23 Mr. Fairbairn wrote to Mr. Hopkins:


Page 321

294 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvn.


Page 323

296 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xni.


Page 324

on November 7, 1853, gave Mr. Fairbairn suggestions for the necessary alterations and additions to the apparatus, and requested his


Page 325

has not much bearing on Mr. Fairbairn's share of the work, but it will be interesting to scientific men as


Page 325

298 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xth.


Page 328

of compression on this property. Mr. Fairbairn had accordingly to prepare specimens, in the form of small cubes, which were


Page 329

c his great obligations to Mr. Fairbairn for the promptitude with which, in the first instance, he proffered his assistance


Page 329

302 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvn.


Page 330

June 16 of that year, Mr. Fairbairn, writing to Sir David Brewster, said :


Page 331

August, 1864, he wrote to Mr. Fairbairn as follows :


Page 331

304 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xvu.


Page 332

1865,-the Royal Society wrote to Mr. Fairbairn on the subject of the balance of money , but he declined to


Page 333

306 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvu.


Page 335

not intended to claim for Mr. Fairbairn any of the more abstruse portions of the researches, there is no doubt


Page 335

308 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. ouap. xvu.


Page 338

to record the work of Mr. Fairbairn, during his long career, in many different capacities, as consulting engineer, as scientific


Page 339

was in this work that Mr. Fairbairn's true character began to appear. He stepped out of the ranks of the


Page 339

312 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvin.


Page 340

of which is given by Mr. Fairbairn in Chap. VHI.


Page 341

Mr. Fairbairn, speaking of these works some years afterwards, said :


Page 341

314 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xvitt.


Page 342

had been engaged in, but Mr. Fairbairn felt his own superiority in the higher gifts of design and invention, and


Page 343

steam-engines, was taken up energetically. Mr. Fairbairn did not immediately introduce any striking novelties, for the general design of the


Page 343

316 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvm.


Page 344

paid attention to its peculiarities. Mr. Fairbairn saw that there was an opening, not only for a large business in


Page 344

on under the name of William Fairbairn and Sons.


Page 345

In 1846 Mr. Fairbairn took out the Tubular Bridge Patent, mentioned at the end of Chapter XIIL,


Page 346

About 1850 Mr. Fairbairn was engaged in a large work at Keyham Dockyard, near Plymouth, namely, the


Page 347

and subject to peculiar strains, Mr. Fairbairn (who had shortly before built a caisson for Portsmouth, of a smaller kind)


Page 347

320 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvur.


Page 348

Mr. Fairbairn's improvement consisted in making the projecting arm of the crane of iron plates


Page 349

322 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvm.


Page 350

and partner (the present Sir Thomas Fairbairn) was one of the most prominent figures in the


Page 350

Mr. Fairbairn did not take any active part in the proceedings of the Committee of


Page 351

324 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvm.


Page 352

subject have been found among Mr. Fairbairn's papers :


Page 353

let me thank you and Mrs. Fairbairn for your agreeable hospitality during my manufacturing tour. I am very happy that


Page 353

a year after this date Mr. Fairbairn says, in a letter to General Morin :


Page 353

326 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvm.


Page 354

1852 the Government called in Mr. Fairbairn's aid in the establishment of the now well-known Small Arms Factory at Enfield.


Page 355

328 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvin.


Page 356

portion of the work done. Mr. Fairbairn's reputation was so great that he was consulted from all parts of the


Page 357

Mr. Fairbairn was consulted as to the best means of carrying out this proposal, and


Page 357

330 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xviu.


Page 358

1860 the firm undertook, under Mr. Fairbairn's direction, a work of considerable difficulty, namely, the rebuilding of two large viaducts


Page 359

it was fully described by Mr. Fairbairn in a paper read before the Institution of Civil Engineers, February 24,1863, and


Page 359

332 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xvm.


Page 362

other manufacturing establishment with which Mr Fairbairn was connected, the ship-building yard at Millwall. It was in existence about twelve


Page 362

Manchester profits, would have sent Mr. Fairbairn into the Bankruptcy Court, and ruined his prospects for ever.


Page 363

little progress, when in 1830, Mr. Fairbairn directed his attention to the use of steam-power on the Forth and Clyde


Page 363

336 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xix.


Page 364

difficulty very early seen, but Mr. Fairbairn hoped, by .frequent journeys backwards and forwards, to give so much of his


Page 365

Mr. Fairbairn took out two patents for improvements in marine steam machinery. The first was


Page 365

338 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xix.


Page 366

works had been in operation, Mr. Fairbairn was requested to go to Turkey, he consented with considerable hesitation, fearing that


Page 367

suffered many heartburnings and mortifications. Mrs. Fairbairn was confined of her last child. My sons were all at school, my


Page 367

340 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xix.


Page 368

after much hesitation and consideration, Mr. Fairbairn, about 1844, came to the conelusion that it would be to his interest


Page 369

was a great relief to Mr. Fairbairn to get rid of the Millwall establishment, as it enabled him to concentrate


Page 369

The present Sir Thomas Fairbairn has given the editor the following memorandum respecting these transactions :


Page 369

342 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xix.


Page 372

ROM 1861 to 1865 Mr. Fairbairn was engaged in aiding le Government on an official investigation respecting the pplication


Page 373

346 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 375

348 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 376

will, to fall in with Mr. Fairbairn's original recommendation. This has since become universally adopted, and wooden ships of war


Page 377

350 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 378

Mr. William Fairbairn, F.R.S.) n. ., -^ . . ,,


Page 379

352 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. coir, xx.


Page 381

354 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 383

'356 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 385

358 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xx.


Page 386

Mr. Fairbairn, in addition to a frequent attendance at the meetings and experiments of the


Page 387

Mr. Fairbairn communicated information on this subject in two papers read before the British Association


Page 387

360 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. n.


Page 391

364 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. in.


Page 393

366 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 394

ayant daigne d&erner a M. William Fairbairn une m£daille en or a l'effigie de sa Majeste, en temoignage de la


Page 394

As a result of Mr. Fairbairn's visit to Sweden, he was honoured with a distinction by King Oscar, as


Page 394

pour la faire parvenir a M. Fairbairn, dont Tadresse est inconnue ici.


Page 395

368 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 396

British Association at Hull.-In 1853 Mr. Fairbairn was appointed President of the Mechanical Section of the British Association, at their


Page 397

370 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxl


Page 398

Institution of Mechanical Engineers.-In 1854 Mr. Fairbairn was elected President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. This society was founded


Page 399

from an eminent friend of Mr. Fairbairn's, now deceased, who did not serve as a juror, is highly characteristic of


Page 399

372 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 401

But although Mr. Fairbairn thus gave, on the whole, the superiority to Great Britain in machinery, he


Page 401

374 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xii.


Page 402

My dear Mr. Fairbairn,-Were it not for prolonged illness, I should have proposed to have met you


Page 403

In the same year Mr. Fairbairn was applied to by the Emperor of the French to give advice in


Page 403

376 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 404

inaugurated on June 26, 1857, Mr. Fairbairn, as the most, eminent mechanic in the city, being deputed to take the


Page 405

In 1857 Mr. Fairbairn contributed a note on the merits of James Watt, to a memoir of


Page 405

37 S LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 406

As a sequel to this Mr. Fairbairn, in February 1857, made a powerful appeal directly and personally to Lord Palmerston


Page 407

the latter part of 1857, Mr. Fairbairn suffered from a slight rheumatic attack, and as it lasted some months he


Page 408

Atlantic Cable.-From 1859 to 1865 Mr. Fairbairn interested himself actively in regard to the grand enterprise of carrying electric telegraph


Page 409

the enquiry Mr. Fairbairn undertook personally a series of experiments 'on the permeability of various kinds of


Page 409

382 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xii.


Page 410

steamer, and during that year Mr. Fairbairn was sti U in active correspondence on various matters connected with the undertaking,


Page 411

Mr. Fairbairn was elected President of the society in 1855, and remained in that office


Page 411

384 tl FE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxl


Page 412

He then enumerated several of Mr. Fairbairn's most important works and papers, and coneluded:


Page 413

exhausted by their arduous toils. Mr. Fairbairn, therefore, is one of the many examples of what can be done in


Page 414

Mr. Fairbairn then went on to trace the applications of astronomy, magnetism, chemistry, geology, botany,


Page 415

that section being taken by Mr. Fairbairn's son-in-law, Mr. J. F. Bateman.


Page 415

388 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxi.


Page 416

1861. Thanks to you for Mr. Fairbairn's address, and your reference to page 17. It is pleasant to see recognised,


Page 417

kind regards to you and Mrs. Fairbairn, and I am, my dear sir,


Page 417

390 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xii.


Page 418

Mr. Fairbairn returned the following reply:


Page 419

Mr. Fairbairn applied directly to Lord Palmerston, armed with the force of his position as


Page 419

392 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, ixl


Page 420

can cause happiness to you, Mrs. Fairbairn, and your family. During the twelve years I have been in Manchester, I


Page 421

May 16, 1862. My dear Mr. Fairbairn,-I find that at the Chancellor's suggestion you are to receive an honorary degree


Page 421

394 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xu.


Page 423

Baronetcy.-It was in 1869, when Mr. Fairbairn had arrived at the 80th year of his age, that the crowning honour


Page 423

396 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxl


Page 424

liked the old one * William Fairbairn, of Manchester,' better, I am well known by it, and I fear both


Page 424

In writing to a relation Mr. Fairbairn said:


Page 428

of the latter portion of Mr. Fairbairn's life, one of the most prominent .was the use of his pen. He


Page 429

that required novel mathematical treatment. Mr. Fairbairn's paper gave his own views on the subject, and many other engineers took


Page 430

the course of the paper Mr. Fairbairn took occasion frequently to speak of the comparison between wood and iron as


Page 431

to the experiments, contributed, at Mr. Fairbairn's request, by Mr. Tate.


Page 432

Mr. Fairbairn, in his autobiographical notes, speaks of this paper as one of the most


Page 433

Bobinson, of Armagh, wrote to Mr. Fairbairn, as follows, dated May 28, 1855:


Page 433

406 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxil


Page 435

the' Encyclopaedia Britannica,' applied to Mr. Fairbairn to re-write the article ' Iron' for the eighth edition of that work,


Page 436

in forwarding the particulars to Mr. Fairbairn, said:


Page 437

what the work consists of. Mr. Fairbairn had frequently delivered lectures to Mechanics' Associations and other similar institutions in the


Page 437

410 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxn.


Page 438

In 1859 Mr. Fairbairn presented a short memoir to the British Association, entitled ' Experiments to determine


Page 439

the British Association in 1860, Mr. Fairbairn contributed a Beport of:-Experi


Page 440

had tried some experiments, but Mr. Fairbairn considered they were incomplete, and he therefore instituted others on a more comprehensive


Page 441

About this time Mr. Fairbairn brought out an important work on a subject peculiarly his own, namely, a


Page 441

414 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxn.


Page 442

to the former of these, Mr. Fairbairn has not confined himself, as previous authors have done, to the treatment of


Page 443

In 1865 Mr. Fairbairn brought out a i Treatise on Iron Shipbuilding ,' which he dedicated to


Page 443

416 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxil


Page 444

and he accordingly applied to Mr. Fairbairn, who responded with his usual public spirit.


Page 445

Mr. Fairbairn was engaged on this work from August 1867 to July 1869, but he


Page 445

418 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxn.


Page 447

420 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxn.


Page 448

In Mr. Fairbairn's more important writings, and in the experimental investigations they related to, he availed


Page 449

many important investigations undertaken by Mr. Fairbairn, and in the publications recording them, particularly those referring to boilers, the properties


Page 449

422 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xiil


Page 452

William Fairbairn came from a long-lived family. His grandfather, John Fairbairn, died in 1797, at


Page 452

a long-lived family. His grandfather, John Fairbairn, died in 1797, at the ripe age of eighty-one, and his grandmother also


Page 453

domestic affliction which you and Mrs. Fairbairn have suffered. We hope that the genial air of the south will hasten


Page 453

My dear Mr. Fairbairn,-My wife and I grieve to hear of your illness, and of the severe


Page 453

426 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxid.


Page 454

how you are, and how Mrs. Fairbairn has borne her affliction.


Page 457

was a great delight to Mr. Fairbairn to visit at these places. The house at Cardross in Perthshire, was taken


Page 457

430 . LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xnu


Page 458

the Surrey estate, where Sir William Fairbairn was afterwards a frequent visitor. After his arrival there, about the middle of


Page 459

remains of the late Sir William Fairbairn, Baronet, were interred yesterday at Prestwich parish church. The distinguished position of the


Page 460

William Fairbairn, Baronet:


Page 461

434 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxiil


Page 462

spoken to unfamiliar ears. Sir William Fairbairn was not a man of thig class. He always seems to have enjoyed


Page 462

past generation has departed. Sir Wil Uam Fairbairn died a little after noon on Tuesday, at Moor


Page 463

436 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap, xxhl


Page 465

438 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxnr.


Page 467

only their admiration of Sir William Fairbairn's career and public services, but they state that they " loved him for


Page 468

citizens. I allude to Sir William Fairbairn, who was connected with the interests of our city for a very long


Page 468

Yours very truly, * (Signed) Thomas Fairbairn.


Page 469

requested to communicate, through Sir Thomas Fairbairn, to Lady Fairbairn and the other members of the family the assurance of


Page 469

442 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. run.


Page 470

suitable permanent memorial of Sir William Fairbairn. He had not had the gratification of making the acquaintance of Sir William


Page 471

an old friend of Sir William Fairbairn, Mr. Ainsworth, of Cleator, who said, * I cannot take the initiative- I


Page 472

to support the resolution. Sir William Fairbairn had teen throughout his Ufe a most kindly friend of his. He had


Page 475

'-FONDNESS FOR CHILDREN-REALITY OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN's MERITS-MORAL.


Page 476

Mr. Fairbairn was, as already stated, married in 1816. The couple therefore lived together eight


Page 476

give some illustrations of Sir William Fairbairn's character.


Page 477

lifetime of the Prince Consort Mr. Fairbairn, as well as other members of his family, were honoured with frequent instances


Page 477

and, the younger, the Rev. Adam Henderson Fairbairn, M.A., is vicar of Waltham St.-Lawrence, Berks.


Page 477

450 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xht.


Page 478

offer an estimate of Sir William Fairbairn's character we may, in the first instance, gather some illustrative traits from his


Page 479

452 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxn.


Page 480

professed to have witnessed, and Mr. Fairbairn replied:


Page 481

454 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxit.


Page 483

letter will show the interest Mr. Fairbairn took in religious subjects :


Page 483

456 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxit.


Page 485

was written had married, and Mr. Fairbairn invited the pair to pay him a visit, the invitation was accepted, but


Page 485

458 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap.xxiy.


Page 486

to say that in Sir William Fairbairn an urbane amiability of demeanour was united to intellectual strength,


Page 486

Scotch notions of toleration, but Mr. Fairbairn's admirable answer to the young wife was as follows:


Page 487

460 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. ciup. xm


Page 489

462 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxiv.


Page 491

464 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xht.


Page 493

466 LIFE OP SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxtv.


Page 495

468 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxiy.


Page 497

470 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xnv.


Page 498

In private life Sir William Fairbairn was distinguished by a quiet dignity of manner, combined with a modesty, simplicity,


Page 499

472 LIFE OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN. chap. xxit.


Page 504

and memoirs published by Sir William Fairbairn.


Page 504

LIST OF SIR WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN'S PUBLISHED WORKS AND PAPERS.


Page 506

Report of William Fairbairn, Esq., C.E., on the Construction of Fireproof Buildings,' with introductory remarks by Samuel


Page 506

Also ' Report of Mr. W. Fairbairn and Mr. D. Bellhouse, on the cause of the Falling of Messrs.


Page 507

is not clear what share Mr. Fairbairn had in these trials, but he reasoned upon them, and gave his opinion


Page 509

sulphur by chemical means, and Mr. Fairbairn's experiments showed that the process improved the quality of the iron, but it


Page 512

Contributed by Mr. Fairbairn to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society on November 16,1858, and published in


Page 525

FAIRBAIRN, Adam Henderson, son of Sir William Fairbairn, vicar of Waltham, 450


Page 525

Adam Henderson, son of Sir William Fairbairn, vicar of Waltham, 450


Page 525

Fairbairn, Anne, daughter of Sir William Fairbairn, her marriage with Mr. Bateman, 191


Page 525

Fairbairn, John, son of Sir William Fairbairn, his death, 425


Page 527

William Andrew, son of Sir William Fairbairn, 449 , enters his father's business, 317, retires from business, 330


Page 530

Fairbairn from, 280, letter from Thomas Fairbairn to, 440


Page 542

The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart. F.R.S. Corresponding Member of the National Institute of France, &c.